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dc.contributor.authorVogt Een_US
dc.contributor.authorDragosits Uen_US
dc.contributor.authorBraban CFen_US
dc.contributor.authorTheobald MRen_US
dc.contributor.authorDore AJen_US
dc.contributor.authorvan Dijk Nen_US
dc.contributor.authorTang YSen_US
dc.contributor.authorMcdonald Cen_US
dc.contributor.authorMurray Sen_US
dc.contributor.authorRees RMen_US
dc.contributor.authorSutton MAen_US
dc.description.abstractWe examined the consequences of the spatial heterogeneity of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) by measuring and modelling NH3 concentrations and deposition at 25 m grid resolution for a rural landscape containing intensive poultry farming, agricultural grassland, woodland and moorland. The emission pattern gave rise to a high spatial variability of modelled mean annual NH3 concentrations and dry deposition. Largest impacts were predicted for woodland patches located within the agricultural area, while larger moorland areas were at low risk, due to atmospheric dispersion, prevailing wind direction and low NH3 background. These high resolution spatial details are lost in national scale estimates at 1 km resolution due to less detailed emission input maps. The results demonstrate how the spatial arrangement of sources and sinks is critical to defining the NH3 risk to semi-natural ecosystems. These spatial relationships provide the foundation for local spatial planning approaches to reduce environmental impacts of atmospheric NH3. Crown Copyright 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
dc.relation.ispartofEnvironmental Pollutionen_US
dc.subjectSpatial planningen
dc.subjectDispersion modellingen
dc.subjectLandscape scaleen
dc.subjectCritical levelen
dc.titleHeterogeneity of atmospheric ammonia at the landscape scale and consequences for environmental impact assessmenten_US

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