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dc.contributor.authorMartin JEen
dc.contributor.authorSandilands Ven
dc.contributor.authorSparrey Jen
dc.contributor.authorBaker Len
dc.contributor.authorDixon LMen
dc.contributor.authorMcKeegan DEFen
dc.date.accessioned2019-03-28T10:37:34Z
dc.date.available2019-03-28T10:37:34Z
dc.date.issued2019
dc.identifier.citation14:2en
dc.identifier.urihttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212872
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11262/11610
dc.description.abstractThere is a need for novel mechanical devices for dispatching poultry on farm following the introduction of EU Regulation (EC) no. 1099/2009 On the Protection of Animals at the Time of Killing. We examined three novel mechanical killing devices: Modified Armadillo, Modified Rabbit Zinger, a novel mechanical cervical dislocation device; and traditional manual cervical dislocation. The four killing methods were tested on 230 chickens across four batches. We measured behavioural, electroencephalogram and post-mortem outcomes in anesthetized laying hens and broilers at two life stages (juveniles and adults/slaughter age). Graeco Latin-Square designs systematically randomized killing treatment, bird type, age and kill order. All birds were lightly anaesthetized immediately prior to the killing treatment with inhalation of Sevoflurane. The novel mechanical cervical dislocation method had the highest kill success rate (single application attempt only, with no signs of recovery) of a mechanical method (96%). The Modified Armadillo was the least reliable with 49% kill success. Spectral analysis of electroencephalogram signals at 2 s intervals for successfully killed birds only revealed progressive decreases in median frequency alongside increases in total power. Later, total power decreased as the birds exhibited isoelectric electroencephalogram signal. Latencies to pre-defined spectral ranges associated with unconsciousness showed that birds subjected to manual and novel mechanical cervical dislocation achieved these states sooner than birds subjected to the modified Armadillo. Nevertheless all methods exhibited short latencies (<4 s). The Modified Rabbit Zinger had the shortest duration of reflex persistence for nictitating membrane, pupillary and rhythmic breathing post method application. Of the methods tested, the novel mechanical cervical dislocation device is the most promising mechanical method for killing poultry on-farm based on a range of behavioural, electroencephalogram and anatomical parameters. This device has the potential to fulfil the current need for a mechanical alternative to manual cervical dislocation.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.relation.isformatof15052en
dc.relation.ispartofPLoS ONEen
dc.rightsCopyright: © 2019 Martin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
dc.subjectBirdsen
dc.subjectReflexesen
dc.subjectBrain damageen
dc.subjectPoultryen
dc.subjectSkullen
dc.subjectBrainstemen
dc.subjectAnestheticsen
dc.titleWelfare assessment of novel on-farm killing methods for poultryen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.description.versionVersion of Record
dc.extent.pageNumberse0212872en
rioxxterms.publicationdate2019-02-22
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
dcterms.dateAccepted2019-02-11
refterms.accessExceptionNAen
refterms.dateDeposit2019-03-28
refterms.depositExceptionpublishedGoldOAen
refterms.depositExceptionExplanationGoldOAen
refterms.panelUnspecifieden
refterms.technicalExceptionNAen
refterms.versionVoRen


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