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dc.contributor.authorRichmond SEen
dc.contributor.authorWemelsfelder Fen
dc.contributor.authorde Heredia IBen
dc.contributor.authorRuiz Ren
dc.contributor.authorCanali Een
dc.contributor.authorDwyer CMen
dc.date.accessioned2017-12-12T15:43:44Z
dc.date.available2017-12-12T15:43:44Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier.citation4:210en
dc.identifier.issn2297-1769
dc.identifier.urihttps://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2017.00210
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11262/11363
dc.description.abstractSheep are managed under a variety of different environments (continually outdoors, partially outdoors with seasonal or diurnal variation, continuously indoors) and for different purposes, which makes assessing welfare challenging. This diversity means that resource-based indicators are not particularly useful and thus a welfare assessment scheme for sheep, focusing on animal-based indicators, was developed. We focus specifically on ewes, as the most numerous group of sheep present on farm, although many of the indicators may also have relevance to adult male sheep. Using the Welfare Quality® framework of four Principles and 12 Criteria, we considered the validity, reliability and feasibility of 46 putative animal-based indicators for these criteria, derived from the literature. Where animal-based indicators were potentially unreliably or were not considered feasible, we also considered the resource-based indicators of access to water, stocking density and floor slipperiness. With the exception of the criteria ‘Absence of prolonged thirst’ we suggest at least one animal-based indicator for each welfare criterion. As a minimum, face validity was available for all indicators, however for many we found evidence of convergent validity, and discriminant validity (e.g. lameness as measured by gait score, body condition score). The reliability of most of the physical and health measures has been tested in the field and found to be appropriate for use in welfare assessment. However, for the majority of the proposed behavioural indicators (lying synchrony, social withdrawal, postures associated with pain, vocalisations, stereotypy, vigilance, response to surprise and human approach test) this still needs to be tested. In conclusion, the comprehensive assessment of sheep welfare through largely animal-based measures is supported by the literature through the use of indicators focusing on specific aspects of sheep biology. Further work is required for some indicators to ensure that measures are reliable when used in commercial settings.en
dc.description.sponsorshipScottish Government RESAS Strategic Research Programme (RD2.3.11)en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.relation.isformatof14735en
dc.relation.ispartofFrontiers in Veterinary Scienceen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2017 Richmond, Wemelsfelder, de Heredia, Ruiz, Canali and Dwyer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectSheepen
dc.subjectWelfare assessmenten
dc.subjectAnimal-based measuresen
dc.subjectBehaviouren
dc.subjectHealthen
dc.titleEvaluation of animal-based indicators for use in a welfare assessment protocol for sheepen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.description.versionVersion of record
rioxxterms.publicationdate2017-12-11
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
dcterms.dateAccepted2017-11-22
refterms.accessExceptionNAen
refterms.dateDeposit2017-12-12
refterms.depositExceptionpublishedGoldOAen
refterms.panelUnspecifieden
refterms.technicalExceptionNAen
refterms.versionVoRen


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Copyright © 2017 Richmond, Wemelsfelder, de Heredia, Ruiz, Canali and Dwyer.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Copyright © 2017 Richmond, Wemelsfelder, de Heredia, Ruiz, Canali and Dwyer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.